Linux + Apache + MySQL + PHP
Probably the most common installation of web server, at least for a Linux system, is Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP. Also possible on a Windows system, in which case it would be known as WAMP. I will cover setting up the former here.
Let's get started. Download the package lists from the repositories:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install apache2
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
Install PHP and PHP mysql modules
sudo apt-get install php5 sudo apt-get install php5-mysql
Install phpMyAdmin (optional)
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
And we're done!
Well, almost. There are a few additional steps you may want to do, for example running mysql_secure_installation.
By default, the web root directory will be /var/www/ or /var/www/html/